Pronouns may be considered a subgroup of nouns, because both fill the same functions in a sentence (subject, object, and so on) and bear case endings. Pronouns, essentially, replace nouns or noun phrases to avoid repreating them. There are eight personal pronouns, representing the first, second and third persons.
|he, she||they||he, she, it, they, -self|
In Çomyopregi, neither the nominative nor genitive forms are encountered often. Concerning the genitive: unlike nouns, the genitive is not usually used for possession. Instead, possessive adjectives are used. (Cf. Adjectives and Numerals.) Concerning the nominative, in Çomyopregi, as in most European languages, personal endings on the verb already indicate who the verb's subject is, so the subject pronouns are not needed except for emphasis. Sé, the reflexive pronoun, only has non-nominative forms anyway. This is a third person pronoun used to refer back to the subject of the sentence if the regular third person were used again instead, it would imply that there was another person involved:
(Ci) sé níguet. "He washes himself."
(Ci) cim níguet. "He washes him [someone else]."
Çomyopregi third-person pronouns are limited to actual persons (this sometimes includes animals, too) there is no "it." Instead, when "it" is meant, it is up to the personal endings to indicate the subject. In fact, "it" need not even be mentioned when it is the direct object, because if the verb is transitive and there is no explicit direct object, then it is implied that the direct object is "it." However, on those occasions when "it" absolutely must be said, then a demonstrative pronoun is used, which brings us to another table . . .
|what, which||who||who, which, that||who, which, that||that, it||those, they|
Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions, like "who?" or "what?" They do not distinguish number, but use only singular forms, even if more than one thing is in question. There are also relative pronouns, which join clauses to the rest of the sentence, like "the man who ran to work today". In English, the relative pronouns are "which", "who", and "that." In Çomyopregi, there is a separate set of relative pronouns, but they do not distinguish personal and impersonal (or animate and inanimate) like the interrogative and demonstrative. The demonstrative pronouns are used to "point things out", such as "this" or "that". The demonstrative pronouns by default are distal; that is, they mean "that", referring to more distant things. The proximal ("this") demonstratives are created by prefixing oy-: oyto, "this", oytós, "these".
The interrogative pronoun is the basis of other types of pronouns. The indefinite pronoun, sinqui, "somebody", is formed by prefixing sin- to the interrogative pronoun. Likewise, prefixing pan- gives panqui, "everybody," the universal pronoun, and prefixing ne- gives nequi, "noone," the negative pronoun. This parallelism holds up for all kinds of demonstrative, interrogative, etc., forms, and can be represented in the great "Table of Correlatives," which if you studied Esperanto, has probably already been beaten into your head.
|Motive||pro tóy||pro quóy||pro yóy, ti pro quó||pro sinquó||pro panquó||pro nequó|
|Manner||tové||quové||yové, ti quové||sinquové||panquové||nequové|
|Direction toward||téra||quéra||ti quéra||sinquéra||panquéra||nequéra|
|Direction away from||téret||quéret||ti quéret||sinquéret||panquéret||nequéret|
In the above table, please note that the words indicating manner are merely the instrumental of the impersonal forms, and the words for reason or cause are the corresponding dative with pro-, "for," prefixed. The oddballs in this table are the relative forms, which are sometimes based on the stem yo-, and sometimes on the interrogative form, preceded by ti.
One final pronoun of importance which does not fit into any of the systems above is monu, "one," sometimes called a "fourth-person pronoun." It is used in speaking of a person in a generalized, hypothetical way. It is declined like a regular u-stem noun.
Now, with the pronouns, we have concluded the so-called nominal parts of speech (nouns, adjectives, and pronouns), and move onto verbs.Reguándóy domum